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- On Main Street with Aaron Wallace: An Unofficial Disney Fan Podcast
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After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates, and soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site; when Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge,  and another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed. Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack.
While trying to warn the Na'vi, Jake confesses to being a spy, and the Na'vi take him and Grace captive.
Seeing this, Quaritch's men destroy Hometree, killing Neytiri's father the clan chief and many others. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator feared and honored by the Na'vi. Jake finds the refugees at the sacred Tree of Souls and pleads with Mo'at to heal Grace; the clan attempts to transfer Grace from her human body into her avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls, but she dies before the process can be completed.
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Supported by the new chief Tsu'tey, Jake speaks to unite the clan and tells them to gather all of the clans to battle against the RDA. Noticing the impending gathering, Quaritch organizes a pre-emptive strike against the Tree of Souls, believing that its destruction will demoralize the natives.
On the eve of battle, Jake prays to Eywa, via a neural connection with the Tree of Souls, to intercede on behalf of the Na'vi. During the subsequent battle, the Na'vi suffer heavy casualties, including Tsu'tey and Trudy; but are rescued when Pandoran wildlife unexpectedly join the attack and overwhelm the humans, which Neytiri interprets as Eywa's answer to Jake's prayer. Jake destroys a makeshift bomber before it can reach the Tree of Souls; Quaritch, wearing an AMP suit , escapes from his own damaged aircraft and breaks open the avatar link unit containing Jake's human body, exposing it to Pandora's poisonous atmosphere.
Quaritch prepares to slit the throat of Jake's avatar, but Neytiri kills Quaritch and saves Jake from suffocation. With the exceptions of Jake, Norm and a select few others, all humans are expelled from Pandora and sent back to Earth, after which Jake is permanently transferred into his avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls.
In ,  director James Cameron wrote an page treatment for Avatar , drawing inspiration from "every single science fiction book" he had read in his childhood as well as from adventure novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs and H. Rider Haggard. In February , Cameron revealed that his film Project was "a retooled version of Avatar ", a film that he had tried to make years earlier,  citing the technological advances in the creation of the computer-generated characters Gollum , King Kong , and Davy Jones. In an interview, Indian actor Govinda revealed that James Cameron had reached out to him offering to cast him for the role of Jake Sully, which he declined citing his disagreement over using body paints as well as planned long duration of shooting,  he further claimed that the title of the movie was also suggested by him to Cameron after assuring him that the movie would be very successful.
This has eventually led to several users mocking him on social media;   the actor, in his later interview has called the reaction of social media users as 'prejudiced behavior'. From January to April , Cameron worked on the script and developed a culture for the film's aliens, the Na'vi, their language was created by Dr. Paul Frommer , a linguist at USC ;  the Na'vi language has a lexicon of about words, with some 30 added by Cameron.
Holt, professor of plant physiology at University of California, Riverside , to learn about the methods used by botanists to study and sample plants, and to discuss ways to explain the communication between Pandora's organisms depicted in the film. From to , Cameron worked with a handful of designers, including famed fantasy illustrator Wayne Barlowe and renowned concept artist Jordu Schell , to shape the design of the Na'vi with paintings and physical sculptures when Cameron felt that 3-D brush renderings were not capturing his vision,  often working together in the kitchen of Cameron's Malibu home.
The system would use two high-definition cameras in a single camera body to create depth perception. While these preparations were underway, Fox kept wavering in its commitment to Avatar because of its painful experience with cost overruns and delays on Cameron's previous picture, Titanic , even though Cameron rewrote the script to combine several characters together and offered to cut his fee in case the film flopped. The story would be of an entire world complete with an ecosystem of phantasmagorical plants and creatures, and native people with a rich culture and language.
Avatar is primarily an action-adventure journey of self-discovery, in the context of imperialism and deep ecology. In a interview with Time magazine, Cameron was asked about the meaning of the term Avatar , to which he replied, "It's an incarnation of one of the Hindu gods taking a flesh form. In this film what that means is that the human technology in the future is capable of injecting a human's intelligence into a remotely located body, a biological body.
In her dream, she saw a blue-skinned woman 12 feet 4 m tall, which he thought was "kind of a cool image". It's a good color For the love story between characters Jake and Neytiri, Cameron applied a star-crossed love theme, and acknowledged its similarity to the pairing of Jack and Rose from his film Titanic. An interviewer stated, "Both couples come from radically different cultures that are contemptuous of their relationship and are forced to choose sides between the competing communities.
Cameron said the two actors "had a great chemistry" during filming. For the film's floating "Hallelujah Mountains", the designers drew inspiration from "many different types of mountains, but mainly the karst limestone formations in China. To create the interiors of the human mining colony on Pandora, production designers visited the Noble Clyde Boudreaux  oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico during June They photographed, measured and filmed every aspect of the platform, which was later replicated on-screen with photorealistic CGI during post-production.
Cameron said that he wanted to make "something that has this spoonful of sugar of all the action and the adventure and all that" but also have a conscience "that maybe in the enjoying of it makes you think a little bit about the way you interact with nature and your fellow man", he added that "the Na'vi represent something that is our higher selves, or our aspirational selves, what we would like to think we are" and that even though there are good humans within the film, the humans "represent what we know to be the parts of ourselves that are trashing our world and maybe condemning ourselves to a grim future".
Cameron acknowledges that Avatar implicitly criticizes the United States' role in the Iraq War and the impersonal nature of mechanized warfare in general. In reference to the use of the term shock and awe in the film, Cameron said, "We know what it feels like to launch the missiles. We don't know what it feels like for them to land on our home soil, not in America.
I think it's very patriotic to question a system that needs to be corralled Cameron described the film as a hybrid with a full live-action shoot in combination with computer-generated characters and live environments. The director indicated that he had already worked four months on nonprincipal scenes for the film;  the live action was shot with a modified version of the proprietary digital 3-D Fusion Camera System , developed by Cameron and Vince Pace. During filming, Cameron made use of his virtual camera system , a new way of directing motion-capture filmmaking; the system shows the actors' virtual counterparts in their digital surroundings in real time, allowing the director to adjust and direct scenes just as if shooting live action.
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According to Cameron, "It's like a big, powerful game engine. If I want to fly through space, or change my perspective, I can. I can turn the whole scene into a living miniature and go through it on a 50 to 1 scale. Cameron said this process does not diminish the value or importance of acting.
On the contrary, because there is no need for repeated camera and lighting setups, costume fittings and make-up touch-ups, scenes do not need to be interrupted repeatedly. Cameron gave fellow directors Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson a chance to test the new technology.
Motion capture brings the director back to a kind of intimacy that actors and directors only know when they're working in live theater.
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To film the shots where CGI interacts with live action, a unique camera referred to as a "simulcam" was used, a merger of the 3-D fusion camera and the virtual camera systems. While filming live action in real time with the simulcam, the CGI images captured with the virtual camera or designed from scratch, are superimposed over the live action images as in augmented reality and shown on a small monitor, making it possible for the director to instruct the actors how to relate to the virtual material in the scene.
Due to Cameron's personal convictions about climate change, he allowed only plant-based vegan food to be served on set. A number of innovative visual effects techniques were used during production. According to Cameron, work on the film had been delayed since the s to allow the techniques to reach the necessary degree of advancement to adequately portray his vision of the film;   the director planned to make use of photorealistic computer-generated characters, created using new motion capture animation technologies he had been developing in the 14 months leading up to December Innovations include a new system for lighting massive areas like Pandora's jungle,  a motion-capture stage or "volume" six times larger than any previously used, and an improved method of capturing facial expressions, enabling full performance capture.
To achieve the face capturing, actors wore individually made skull caps fitted with a tiny camera positioned in front of the actors' faces; the information collected about their facial expressions and eyes is then transmitted to computers. The lead visual effects company was Weta Digital in Wellington , New Zealand, at one point employing people to work on the film;  because of the huge amount of data which needed to be stored, cataloged and available for everybody involved, even on the other side of the world, a new cloud computing and Digital Asset Management DAM system named Gaia was created by Microsoft especially for Avatar , which allowed the crews to keep track of and coordinate all stages in the digital processing.
A new texturing and paint software system, called Mari, was developed by The Foundry in cooperation with Weta. ILM was responsible for the visual effects for many of the film's specialized vehicles and devised a new way to make CGI explosions. Composer James Horner scored the film, his third collaboration with Cameron after Aliens and Titanic. The first photo of the film was released on August 14 , ,  and Empire released exclusive images from the film in its October issue.
Twenty-five minutes of footage was screened  in Dolby 3D. On this day, the trailer was released in all theatrical formats; the official game trailer and toy line of the film were also unveiled on this day. The second trailer was released online on August 20 , It is said to be the largest live motion picture trailer viewing in history. The Coca-Cola Company collaborated with Fox to launch a worldwide marketing campaign to promote the film; the highlight of the campaign was the website AVTR. Specially marked bottles and cans of Coca-Cola Zero , when held in front of a webcam, enabled users to interact with the website's 3-D features using augmented reality AR technology;  the film was heavily promoted in an episode of the Fox Network series Bones in the episode "The Gamer In The Grease" Season 5, Episode 9.
Avatar star Joel David Moore has a recurring role on the program, and is seen in the episode anxiously awaiting the release of the film. Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora , a page book in the form of a field guide to the film's fictional setting of the planet of Pandora, was released by Harper Entertainment on November 24 , The book features detailed production artwork from the film, including production sketches, illustrations by Lisa Fitzpatrick, and film stills.
Producer Jon Landau wrote the foreword, Cameron wrote the epilogue, and director Peter Jackson wrote the preface.
In a interview, Cameron said that he planned to write a novel version of Avatar after the film was released. Cameron chose Ubisoft Montreal to create an Avatar game for the film in ; the filmmakers and game developers collaborated heavily, and Cameron decided to include some of Ubisoft's vehicle and creature designs in the film. Mattel Toys announced in December that it would be introducing a line of Avatar action figures;   each action figure will be made with a 3-D web tag, called an i-TAG, that consumers can scan using a web cam , revealing unique on-screen content that is exclusive to each specific action figure.
In December , France Post released a special limited edition stamp based on Avatar , coinciding with the film's worldwide release. Avatar premiered in London on December 10 , , and was released theatrically worldwide from December 16 to The problems were fixed in time for the public premiere. The international IMAX release included 58 theaters beginning on December 16 , and 25 more theaters were to be added in the coming weeks.
Revenues in the film's second weekend decreased by only 1. Box Office Mojo estimates that after adjusting for the rise in average ticket prices, Avatar would be the 14th-highest-grossing film of all time in North America. Before its release, various film critics and fan communities predicted the film would be a significant disappointment at the box office , in line with predictions made for Cameron's previous blockbuster Titanic ;    this criticism ranged from Avatar ' s film budget, to its concept and use of 3-D "blue cat people".
James Cameron on criticism of Avatar before its release. Box office analysts, on the other hand, estimated that the film would be a box office success. This is the one. The behemoth. Others guessed higher. Cameron said he felt the pressure of the predictions, but that pressure is good for film-makers. We owe them a piece of good entertainment. They want to grab their friend and bring them, so that they can enjoy it, they want to be the person to bring them the news that this is something worth having in their life.
After the film's release and unusually strong box office performance over its first two weeks, it was debated as the one film capable of surpassing Titanic ' s worldwide gross, and its continued strength perplexed box office analysts. I had to do a double take. I thought it was a miscalculation. It's just a matter of time," he said. James Cameron on the success of Avatar . Although analysts have been unable to agree that Avatar ' s success is attributable to one primary factor, several explanations have been advanced.
First, January is historically "the dumping ground for the year's weakest films", and this also applied to Gray said, "At this point, people who are going to see Avatar are going to see Avatar and would even if the slate was strong. Fox positioned the film as a cinematic event that should be seen in the theaters.
Avatar opened in markets globally and was No. It was a tougher sell The film received mostly positive reviews. The site's consensus reads, "It might be more impressive on a technical level than as a piece of storytelling, but Avatar reaffirms James Cameron's singular gift for imaginative, absorbing filmmaking. These polls also indicated that the main draw of the film was its use of 3D.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "extraordinary" and gave it four stars out of four. It's a technical breakthrough, it has a flat-out Green and anti-war message". Scott of At The Movies also compared his viewing of the film to the first time he viewed Star Wars and he said "although the script is a little bit Cameron's talent may just be as big as his dreams.
Avatar ' s underlying social and political themes attracted attention. Armond White of the New York Press wrote that Cameron used "villainous American characters" to "misrepresent facets of militarism , capitalism, and imperialism ". Moore of The Christian Post concluded that "propaganda exists in the film" and stated "If you can get a theater full of people in Kentucky to stand and applaud the defeat of their country in war, then you've got some amazing special effects.
United Fruit ". Critics and audiences have cited similarities with other films, literature or media, describing the perceived connections in ways ranging from simple "borrowing" to outright plagiarism. Avatar received compliments from filmmakers, with Steven Spielberg praising it as "the most evocative and amazing science-fiction movie since Star Wars " and others calling it "audacious and awe inspiring", "master class", and "brilliant".
Noted art director-turned-filmmaker Roger Christian is also a noted fan of the film. The release also preserves the film's native 1. Avatar set a first-day launch record in the U. First-day DVD and Blu-ray sales combined were over four million units sold. Three different versions of the film are present on the discs: the original theatrical cut, the special edition cut, and a collector's extended cut  with the DVD set spreading them on two discs, but the Blu-ray set presenting them on a single disc ; the collector's extended cut contains 6 more minutes of footage, thus making it 16 minutes longer than the original theatrical cut.
Cameron initially stated that Avatar would be released in 3D around November , but the studio issued a correction: "3-D is in the conceptual stage and Avatar will not be out on 3D Blu-ray in November. On August 13, , Cameron announced on Facebook that Avatar would be released globally on Blu-ray 3D;  the Blu-ray 3D version was finally released on October 16, Two sequels to Avatar were initially confirmed after the success of the first film; this number was subsequently expanded to four,   their respective release dates are currently December 17, , December 22, , December 19, , and December 17, Filming for the first two sequels began in September New cast members include Cliff Curtis and Kate Winslet as members of the Na'vi reef people of Metkayina and Oona Chaplin as Varang, a "strong and vibrant central character who spans the entire saga of the sequels".
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On November 14, , Cameron announced filming on Avatar 2 and 3 with the principal performance capture cast had been completed. Toruk — The First Flight is an original stage production by the Montreal -based Cirque du Soleil which premiered in November and has been touring other cities since Inspired by Avatar , the story is set in Pandora's past, involving a prophecy concerning a threat to the Tree of Souls and a quest for totems from different tribes.
Audience members can download an app in order to participate in show effects. On January 18, , it was announced via the Toruk Facebook page that filming for an upcoming DVD has been completed and is currently undergoing editing. Habitability of natural satellites The habitability of natural satellites is a measure of the potential of natural satellites to have environments hospitable to life. Habitable environments do not harbor life. Planetary habitability is an emerging study, considered important to astrobiology for several reasons, foremost being that natural satellites are predicted to outnumber planets and that it is hypothesized that habitability factors are to be similar to those of planets.
There are, key environmental differences which have a bearing on moons as potential sites for extraterrestrial life; the strongest candidates for natural satellite habitability are icy satellites such as those of Jupiter and Saturn—Europa and Enceladus although if life exists in either place, it would be confined to subsurface habitats.
Life on Earth was thought to be a surface phenomenon, but recent studies have shown that up to half of Earth's biomass could live below the surface. Europa and Enceladus exist outside the circumstellar habitable zone which has defined the limits of life within the Solar System as the zone in which water can exist as liquid at the surface. In the Solar System's habitable zone, there are only three natural satellites—the Moon, Mars's moons Phobos and Deimos —none of which sustain an atmosphere or water in liquid form.
Tidal forces are to play as significant a role providing heat as stellar radiation in the potential habitability of natural satellites. Exomoons are not yet confirmed to exist. Detecting them is difficult, because current methods are limited to transit timing, it is possible that some of their attributes could be determined by similar methods as those of transiting planets. Despite this, some scientists estimate that there are as many habitable exomoons as habitable exoplanets. Given the general planet-to-satellite mass ratio of 10,, large Saturn or Jupiter sized gas planets in the habitable zone are thought to be the best candidates to harbour Earth-like moons; the conditions of habitability for natural satellites are similar to those of planetary habitability.
However, there are several factors which differentiate natural satellite habitability and additionally extend their habitability outside the planetary habitable zone. Liquid water is thought by most astrobiologists to be an essential prerequisite for extraterrestrial life. There is growing evidence of subsurface liquid water on several moons in the Solar System orbiting the gas giants Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune. However, none of these subsurface bodies of water has been confirmed to date.
Simulations suggest that a moon with an orbital period less than about 45 to 60 days will remain safely bound to a massive giant planet or brown dwarf that orbits 1 AU from a Sun-like star. An atmosphere is considered by astrobiologists to be important in developing prebiotic chemistry, sustaining life and for surface water to exist. Most natural satellites in the Solar System lack significant atmospheres, the sole exception being Saturn's moon Titan. Sputtering , a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, presents a significant problem for natural satellites.
All the gas giants in the Solar System, those orbiting other stars, have magnetospheres with radiation belts potent enough to erode an atmosphere of an Earth-like moon in just a few hundred million years. Strong stellar winds can strip gas atoms from the top of an atmosphere causing them to be lost to space. To support an Earth-like atmosphere for about 4. One way to decrease loss from sputtering is for the moon to have a strong magnetic field of its own that can deflect stellar wind and radiation belts.
NASA's Galileo's measurements suggest. Alternatively, the moon's atmosphere may be replenished by gases from subsurface sources, as thought by some scientists to be the case with Titan. While the effects of tidal acceleration are modest on planets, it can be a significant source of energy for natural satellites and an alternative energy source for sustaining life. Moons orbiting gas giants or brown dwarfs are to be tidally locked to their primary: that is, their days are as long as their orbits. While tidal locking may adversely affect planets within habitable zones by interfering with the distribution of stellar radiation, it may work in favour of satellite habitability by allowing tidal heating.
Scientists at the NASA Ames Research Center modelled the temperature on tide-locked exoplanets in the habitability zone of red dwarf stars, they found that an atmosphere with a carbon dioxide pressure of only 1—1. The temperature range of a moon, tidally locked to a gas giant could be less extreme than with a planet locked to a star.
Though no studies have been done on the subject, modest amounts of CO2 are speculated to make the temperature habitable. Tidal effects could allow a moon to sustain plate tectonics, which would cause volcanic activity to regulate the moon's temperature. Motion capture Motion capture is the process of recording the movement of objects or people. It is used in military, sports, medical applications, for validation of computer vision and robotics.
In filmmaking and video game development, it refers to recording actions of human actors, using that information to animate digital character models in 2D or 3D computer animation; when it includes face and fingers or captures subtle expressions, it is referred to as performance capture. In many fields, motion capture is sometimes called motion tracking, but in filmmaking and games, motion tracking refers more to match moving. In motion capture sessions, movements of one or more actors are sampled many times per second.
Whereas early techniques used images from multiple cameras to calculate 3D positions, Often the purpose of motion capture is to record only the movements of the actor, not his or her visual appearance; this animation data is mapped to a 3D model so that the model performs the same actions as the actor. This process may be contrasted with the older technique of rotoscoping , as seen in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and American Pop. The animated character movements were achieved in these films by tracing over a live-action actor, capturing the actor's motions and movements.
To explain, an actor is filmed performing an action, the recorded film is projected onto an animation table frame-by-frame. Animators trace the live-action footage onto animation cels, capturing the actor's outline and motions frame-by-frame, they fill in the traced outlines with the animated character; the completed animation cels are photographed frame-by-frame matching the movements and actions of the live-action footage.
The end result of, that the animated character replicates the live-action movements of the actor. However, this process takes a considerable amount of effort. Camera movements can be motion captured so that a virtual camera in the scene will pan, tilt or dolly around the stage driven by a camera operator while the actor is performing. At the same time, the motion capture system can capture the camera and props as well as the actor's performance. This allows the computer-generated characters and sets to have the same perspective as the video images from the camera.
A computer processes the data and displays the movements of the actor, providing the desired camera positions in terms of objects in the set. Retroactively obtaining camera movement data from the captured footage is known as match moving or camera tracking. Motion capture offers several advantages over traditional computer animation of a 3D model: Low latency , close to real time, results can be obtained.
In entertainment applications this can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation; the Hand Over technique is an example of this. The amount of work does not vary with the complexity or length of the performance to the same degree as when using traditional techniques; this allows many tests to be done with different styles or deliveries, giving a different personality only limited by the talent of the actor.
Complex movement and realistic physical interactions such as secondary motions and exchange of forces can be recreated in a physically accurate manner. The amount of animation data that can be produced within a given time is large when compared to traditional animation techniques; this contributes to meeting production deadlines. Potential for free software and third party solutions reducing its costs. Specific hardware and special software programs are required to process the data; the cost of the software and personnel required can be prohibitive for small productions.
The capture system may have specific requirements for the space it is operated in, depending on camera field of view or magnetic distortion; when problems occur, it is easier to shoot the scene again rather than trying to manipulate the data. Only a few systems allow real time viewing of the data to decide; the initial results are limited to what can be performed within the capture volume without extra editing of the data. Movement that does not follow the laws of physics cannot be captured.
Traditional animation techniques, such as added emphasis on anticipation and follow through, secondary motion or manipulating the shape of the character, as with squash and stretch animation techniques, must be added later. If the computer model has different proportions from the capture subject, artifacts may occur. For example, if a cartoon character has large, oversized hands, these may intersect the character's body if the human performer is not careful with their physical motion.
Video games use motion capture to animate athletes, martial artists, other in-game characters; this has been done since the Sega Model 2 arcade game Virtua Fighter 2 in Namco's arcade game Soul Edge used passive optical system markers for motion capture. Humanoid A humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human without being one. The earliest recorded use of the term, in , referred to indigenous peoples in areas colonized by Europeans.
By the 20th century, the term came to describe fossils which were morphologically similar, but not identical, to those of the human skeleton.
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Although this usage was common in the sciences for much of the 20th century, it is now considered rare. More the term can refer to anything with distinctly human characteristics or adaptations, such as possessing opposable anterior forelimb-appendages, visible spectrum-binocular vision, or biomechanic plantigrade-bipedalism. Science fiction media present sentient extraterrestrial lifeforms as humanoid as a byproduct of convergent evolution theory.
Although there are no known humanoid species outside the genus Homo, the theory of convergent evolution speculates that different species may evolve similar traits, in the case of a humanoid these traits may include intelligence and bipedalism and other humanoid skeletal changes, as a result of similar evolutionary pressures. American psychologist and Dinosaur intelligence theorist Harry Jerison suggested the possibility of sapient dinosaurs.
In a presentation at the American Psychological Association , he speculated that dromiceiomimus could have evolved into a intelligent species like human beings. In his book, Wonderful Life , Stephen Jay Gould argues that if the tape of life were re-wound and played back, life would have taken a different course.
Simon Conway Morris counters this argument, arguing that convergence is a dominant force in evolution and that since the same environmental and physical constraints act on all life, there is an "optimum" body plan that life will evolve toward, with evolution bound to stumble upon intelligence, a trait of primates and dolphins, at some point. In , Dale Russell , curator of vertebrate fossils at the National Museum of Canada in Ottawa , conjectured a possible evolutionary path that might have been taken by the dinosaur Troodon had it not perished in the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago, suggesting that it could have evolved into intelligent beings similar in body plan to humans, becoming a humanoid of dinosaur origin.
Over geologic time, Russell noted that there had been a steady increase in the encephalization quotient or EQ among the dinosaurs. Russell had discovered the first Troodontid skull, noted that, while its EQ was low compared to humans, it was six times higher than that of other dinosaurs.
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If the trend in Troodon evolution had continued to the present, its brain case could by now measure 1, cm3. Troodontids had semi-manipulative fingers, able to grasp and hold objects to a certain degree, binocular vision. Russell proposed that this " Dinosauroid ", like most dinosaurs of the troodontid family, would have had large eyes and three fingers on each hand, one of which would have been opposed; as with most modern reptiles, he conceived of its genitalia as internal.
Russell speculated that it would have required a navel , as a placenta aids the development of a large brain case. However, it would not have possessed mammary glands, would have fed its young, as birds do, on regurgitated food, he speculated. Russell's thought experiment has been met with criticism from other paleontologists since the s, many of whom point out that his Dinosauroid is overly anthropomorphic. Gregory S. Paul and Thomas R. Holtz , Jr. A humanoid robot is a robot, based on the general structure of a human, such as a robot that walks on two legs and has an upper torso, or a robot that has two arms, two legs and a head.
A humanoid robot does not look convincingly like a real person, for example the ASIMO humanoid robot has a helmet instead of a face. An android or gynoid is a humanoid robot designed to look as much like a real person as possible, although these words are perceived to be synonymous with humanoid. While there are many humanoid robots in fictional stories, some real humanoid robots have been developed since the s, some real human-looking android robots have been developed since To robots, virtual avatars may be called humanoid when resembling humans.
Deities are imagined in human shape, sometimes as hybrids. A fragment by the Greek poet Xenophanes describes this tendency Men make gods in their own image. In animism in general, the spirits innate in certain objects are depicted in human shape, e. With regard to extraterrestrials in fiction, the term humanoid is most used to refer to alien beings with a body plan, like that of a human, including upright stance and bipedalism , as well as intelligence. In much of science fiction, humanoid ali.
As of , these are still the two highest-grossing films of all time. Avatar earned Landau his second Academy Award nomination. The company was founded by Ami Dror in as X6D Limited; the company deployed over 15, cinemas worldwide. In passive 3D system, silver screen is used and polarized filters on both projector and 3D glasses send either left or right image to appropriate eye and thus creating stereoscopic image in viewer's brains. Other than its cinema and consumer electronic divisions, the 3D technologies developed by XPAND are used in education and professional environments.
For 3D presentations, an alternate color wheel is placed in the projector; this color wheel contains one more set of red and blue filters in addition to the red and blue filters found on a typical color wheel. The additional set of three filters are able to produce the same color gamut as the original three filters, but transmit light at different wavelengths. Glasses with complementary dichroic filters in the lenses are worn, which filter out either one or the other set of three light wavelengths. In this way, one projector can display the left and right stereoscopic images simultaneously; this method of stereoscopic projection is called wavelength multiplex visualization, was created by Infitec.
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The dichroic filters in the Dolby 3D glasses are more expensive and fragile than the glasses technology used in circular polarization systems like RealD Cinema or linear polarization systems like Digital IMAX and are not considered disposable. However, an important benefit of Dolby 3D in comparison with RealD is that Dolby 3D works with conventional projection screens. Dolby 3D produces a brighter and sharper 3D image than RealD and is able to be comfortably viewed on outdoor cinema screens and drive-in cinemas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Theatrical release poster. James Cameron Jon Landau. English Na'vi language. Further information: Fictional universe of Avatar. Main article: Themes in Avatar. Main article: Avatar: Music from the Motion Picture. Main article: List of box office records set by Avatar. Have them go with some sense of wanting to find the answer. People want a persistent alternate reality to invest themselves in and they want the detail that makes it rich and worth their time, they want to live somewhere else.
Like Pandora. Main article: List of accolades received by Avatar. Further information: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3. Main article: Pandora — The World of Avatar. Film portal United States portal. Retrieved July 6, British Board of Film Classification. December 8, Retrieved August 19, December 3, The Wrap.
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Please enter your email below, and we'll send you a new code to reset your password. We've sent you an email with instructions to create a new password. Malak claims he sent the scripts to Cameron in Pictured is screenwriter Jon Povill. Neytiri Zoe Saldana, left and Jake Sam Worthington make final preparations for an epic battle that will decide the fate of an entire world. Share Adjust Comment Print. But his computer experts say the file was created in and was backdated, he said. Cameron has reportedly signed a contract with 20th Century Fox to produce the two sequels.
The original plan was to produce a movie and part animated TV series. Cameron, who was born in Ontario, recently moved to New Zealand. Comments We encourage all readers to share their views on our articles and blog posts. We are committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion, so we ask you to avoid personal attacks, and please keep your comments relevant and respectful.